Friends of Padre Steve’s World,
Fyodor Dostoyevsky wrote, “Nothing is easier than to denounce the evildoer; nothing is more difficult than to understand him.”
Back in 2010 I had a creditable and very specific death threat from a Neo-Nazi in East Tennessee. The man had a formidable internet presence, many publications online, including articles on how best to assassinate people. So I did my research, figured out who he was and reported him to the FBI. A week later his internet presence disappeared. I don’t know what happened to him, but I watch my back.
Over the past few days I have been helping a Jewish friend who is dealing with many Neo-Nazi threats and harassment for supporting an effort to have headstones replaced at the San Antonio Military Cemetery. The headstones were of German POWs but each had a Swastika and the words “he died for his Fuhrer and Fatherland” on them. The fact is that such words and symbols are not allowed by the German Government on the graves of their WWII soldiers in Germany or at any German military cemetery in Europe. Why they ended up on headstones here I don’t know. When an United States Army Colonel complained to the VA about them he was brushed off. That man asked my friend to help. As a result the VA relented, removed the headstones and replaced them with headstones giving the soldier’s names, ranks, military service, and dates of birth and death. But to Neo-Nazis and White Supremacists this was unforgivable.
My friend forwarded those emails to me for assistance. Two were smart enough to use fake email addresses, but one of those revealed his actual name. Another was stupid enough to use his real name and email address. Within 15 minutes I found a plethora of incriminating evidence against him revealing his Nazi affiliations, statements, and all kinds of things easily available through a Google search and tools that are available to purchase. After the first death threat I learned and am continuing learn how to track these people down and expose them to the public from the internet slime they hid in. Sadly, there are a lot more of them now than a decade ago.
But despite attacks and mass murders at synagogues and Jewish Schools, centers, and the vandalism of Jewish businesses, cemeteries, schools, shrines, and synagogues most Americans don’t see the threat. Nor do they when Black Churches are burned, bombed, or attacked by mass murderers. The problem is that most people, even those repulsed by the vile criminals who do such things really don’t want to understand why these people do such things.
I admit that it is uncomfortable and deeply unsettling to do the work needed to understand them, because to do so we have to understand evil and our vulnerability to resorting to evil ourselves. However, it is necessary if we are to stop the scourge of Anti-Semitism and racism in our country. But let me explain.
I think one of our problems is that we want to believe that evil is simply done be evil people. That is why when we see a Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, or the monsters of the so-called Islamic State, we are often strangely comforted. This is often because we can point to a single person with a wicked ideology and say “they are evil,” all the while forgetting that they are, or were, like us, also human. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn reminds us of the folly of that type of thinking:
“If only it were all so simple! If only there were evil people somewhere insidiously committing evil deeds, and it were necessary only to separate them from the rest of us and destroy them. But the line dividing good and evil cuts through the heart of every human being. And who is willing to destroy a piece of his own heart?”
A few years ago I took a break from my Gettysburg studies and writing and dusted off an old academic paper dealing with the one of the more uncomfortable aspects of the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews. I did that because I felt that I needed to reexamine the nature of evil in the modern world. Since that time I have gone back, done more study, more writing, and made more visits to locations of Nazi evil.
When I ponder the evil committed by supposedly civilized men and women of Germany, I realize that they are little different than others who share the culture of the West. These people were the products of a culture of learning, and of science. They were part of a culture formed by the Christian tradition, the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment, the age of Reason. As I pondered this I came to remember something said by the late Iris Chang, “civilization is tissue thin.”
Lynching in the American South
That series of articles about the Einsatzgruppen dealt with the ordinary men, and the bureaucratic systems that implemented an ideology so twisted and evil that it is unimaginable to most people. In fact even in the Nazi system the much of the genocide was not committed in the death camps, but up close and personal by men standing over pits with pistols, rifles, and machine guns.
While most people in the United States know a little about the Holocaust, most do not fully comprehend how devilish and insidious the crimes of the Nazis were. More frightening is the fact that in a 2015 survey 46% of people worldwide have never heard of the Holocaust, and of the 54% who are aware of it some 32% think it is a myth or has been greatly exaggerated. The numbers will only get worse as we become farther removed from these events and the survivors, witnesses, and perpetrators die off. The same is true for other genocidal acts.
We typically know about the extermination camps like Auschwitz, but the lesser known dark side of the Holocaust, perhaps the scariest part, is the story of the men of the Einsatzgruppen. The Einsatzgruppen and affiliated units, including those of the Wehrmacht, the Waffen SS, the mobilized battalions of the Order Police, and locally recruited units, rounded up massive numbers of people and killed them up close and personal. In all these units murdered over two million people, about 1.3 million of whom were Jews.
My study of the Holocaust began in college as an undergraduate. My primary professor at California State University at Northridge, Dr. Helmut Haeussler had been an interpreter and interrogator at the Nuremberg trials. I was able to take a number of lecture classes from him a large amount of research and independent study courses in a year of graduate work while finishing my Army ROTC program at UCLA. It was an immersion in the history, sociology, and the psychology of evil, during which I was able to meet and talk with Jewish survivors of the Holocaust.
Einsatzgruppen and Ordungspolizei in Russia
Since then I have continued to read and study. I lived in Germany for over four years, and made many other visits, during which I went to a number of Concentration Camp sites. I have been to Dachau more times than Incan count since 1996, Bergen-Belsen, Flossenbürg and Buchenwald. I visited the T4 Euthanasia Center at Hadamar, the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, the Wannsee House and many other sites of remembrance in Germany. Likewise I visited the rebuilt synagogue in Worms which had been destroyed during the infamous Kristallnacht, and other museums and Holocaust memorial sites in Germany. I visited the Zeppelin field, the site of Hitler’s massive Nazi Party rallies in Nuremburg, as well as the graveyards which contain the victims of other Nazi crimes, including the Nacht und Nebel or night and fog actions, where people simply disappeared and were murdered by the Gestapo.
For me, those visits were sobering, maybe even more so because I understood exactly what happened in those sites. These are uncomfortable places to visit, and I can understand why many people would not want to visit them, or even study them. But once the COVID-19 Pandemic travel restrictions are over I will go to Auschwitz and the sites like Babi Yar outside Kiev where the Einsatzgruppen killed 33,000 Jews up close and personal in three days. I refuse to stop learning, remembering, walking, or bearing witness.
The darkness that they remind us of is a part of our human condition. Traces of the evil on display in those places is present in every human being regardless of who we are. Frankly, most people cannot bear looking into that abyss, for fear that they might be swallowed by it. I choose to go there knowing the danger because it is the only way to bear witness and not forget.
I can understand why most people don’t want to go to dark places, and I have to admit that it is hard to do so. I am a historian as well as a clinician with much experience dealing with death and trauma. With my training I do a pretty good job of keeping my emotional distance to maintain objectivity when confronted with evil. However, it is hard for me not to have some emotional reaction when visiting these places, or reading about the events and people, and in writing about them. That happens even more when I have to deal with them after I find them and confront them. None are ever sorry or have any capacity for empathy. They are sociopaths and therefore dangerous.
Likewise, I am very troubled by the growing lack or awareness or denial of the Holocaust. It is very hard for me not to have a virulent reaction when I see books and websites dedicated to Holocaust denial, or that minimize other well documented genocides, and crimes against humanity.
Soviet Mass Killings in Ukraine
My sensitivity to human suffering and the terrible indifference of people in this country to it was greatly increased by my experience of war, and my post-war struggles with PTSD, depression, anxiety, which at points left me very close to committing suicide. A non-chaplain friend, a now retired Navy Command Master Chief Petty Officer that I served with at my last duty station recently remarked that I am a tremendously empathic person, and that I have a large capacity to feel the pain and suffering of others. This capacity for empathy and the ability to feel the suffering of others is part of who I am.
That is a good thing, but it makes my work studying and writing about the Holocaust, other genocides, crimes against humanity, and subjects like American slavery, racism, and Jim Crow a sometimes difficult and often very emotionally consuming task. This sometimes leaves me even more sleepless and anxious than normal; especially when I see the indifference of so many people to the suffering of others today.
The Killing Fields
It is that indifference which motivates me to write; because if these events are not recalled and retold, they, like any part of history will be ignored and then forgotten. The statistics bear this out. There are people today, who say that we should stop talking about these events, that they are old news, and they cannot happen again; but history tells us different, and not just the Holocaust, but indeed every genocide. Then there are those who shamelessly use the Holocaust imagery to spread fear among their followers even as they openly demonize minority groups and religions as the Nazis did to the Jews.
I have to agree with Elie Wiesel who said, “Indifference to me, is the epitome of all evil.”
The late Iris Chang, who wrote The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II wrote something that is pertinent to almost every modern episode of genocide, or other crime against humanity. It is the ability of leaders, be they political, military, or religious to convince people to rationalize actions that they normally would find repulsive.
“After reading several file cabinets’ worth of documents on Japanese war crimes as well as accounts of ancient atrocities from the pantheon of world history, I would have to conclude that Japan’s behavior during World War II was less a product of dangerous people than of a dangerous government, in a vulnerable culture, in dangerous times, able to sell dangerous rationalizations to those whose human instincts told them otherwise.”
There are many other such events that we could note; the American decimation and genocide committed against native American tribes that spanned close to two centuries, the 1915 Turkish genocide of Armenians, the Rwandan genocide of 1994, the Serbian atrocities in Bosnia and Kosovo, the Chinese Communist “Great Leap Forward,” the actions of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, and the more recent but seldom discussed action of the Myanmar government and military against its Rohingya Muslim minority.
What we call civilization, to use the words of Iris Chang, is tissue thin. That is why we must never forget these terrible events of history, and that part of human nature, and in a sense part of every one of us, that makes them so easy to repeat. That is why we must periodically take the time to remember and reflect on the Holocaust, other genocides and crimes against humanity.
It is even more important now with the rise of fascist, nationalist, and racist regimes around the world. Even in the United States these demons of the past, racism, nationalism, and fascism have come out into the open as those who believe in them have become emboldened by the words of President Trump and members of his administration. Trump’s time as President is about up, but he as awoken and emboldened an evil that was always a part of American life, but needed permission to go public.
In 2017 Trump briefly attempted to clean up his inaction after the violence committed by neo-Nazis and KKK sympathizers in Charlottesville. He equated the Nazis and Klansmen with the people that they attacked. Under pressure made a speech condemning the Nazis and Klansmen. According to Bob Woodward, when a Fox News correspondent said his statement was “almost an admission that he was wrong,” the President exploded at Rob Porter, the aide who convinced him to make the speech: “That was the biggest fucking mistake I’ve made,” the President told Porter. “You never make those concessions. You never apologize. I didn’t do anything wrong in the first place. Why look weak?” A few days later the President returned to the subject and again made the argument of moral equivalence.
Coupled with so many of the President’s words and policies directed against Blacks, Mexicans and Central Americans, Arabs, Africans, and others; as well as his attacks on the First Amendment and his praise and defense of cold blooded dictators around the world one has to take it more seriously. Even though he is soon to leave officer his Neo-Nazi and White Nationalist supporters will remain as dangerous as ever.
This is not an issue that simply lurks in the past, it is a very real part of the present. I wish that was not the case, but it is. Historian Timothy Snyder wrote:
“The European history of the twentieth century shows us that societies can break, democracies can fall, ethics can collapse, and ordinary men can find themselves standing over death pits with guns in their hands. It would serve us well today to understand why.”
Yes, these are terribly uncomfortable subjects, but we cannot allow this generation to allow them to be forgotten, lest they be repeated. That is why that I must continue to write about them and do my best to make sure that they are not forgotten as we cannot afford to let them happen again.
18 responses to “There is Nothing More Difficult than Understanding Evil: Dealing with the Evils Unleashed By President Trump”
Wow, Padre. As you said in the beginning, I have typically believed that some people were just evil … never considered what made them act as they did, nor tried to understand why they were the way they were. How many times have I said something along the lines of “If I live to be a hundred, I will never understand how people can believe Black people are inferior …”? You’ve written quite a thought-provoking post here, and con su permiso, it will be my afternoon post later today, for I think what you’ve said here is so important that it needs to be shared. Thanks for … making me think.
Reblogged this on Filosofa's Word and commented:
We tend to think that certain people were just born evil and that we could never do the things they do. But wait … is that true? Padre Steve has written a very thought-provoking post on the subject, and while it is a bit lengthy, I urge you to read its entirety, for his words are important and relevant for us all. Thank you, Padre!
I suspect you’ve read Daniel Goldhagen’s “Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust”. Apparently, “normal” humans are capable of great evil with minimal provocation. I’ve been astounded by the level of misogyny and violence I’ve found on social media recently, some accompanied by Nazi symbols. Some look like pics of actual murders.
I would like to know more about social media tools for tracking down these idiots, both for my own defense and for others. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
I’m trying to catch up with comments and thank you for yours. I have read Goldhagen but I think that Christopher Browning is more on target seeing German anti-semitism in the broader context of European anti-semitism. Either one is disconcerting but I think Browning captures the nuance that Goldhagen misses. His book “Ordinary Men“ is well worth the read. However, I too have been seeing what you noted and it is very troubling. I have no doubt that given the right circumstances these same people could sit or stand over a death pit executing innocents just like the Nazi Einsatzgruppe murderers.
Thank you for keeping these memories alive as lessons and for denying the deniers.
Thank you David. If we don’t we will see them happen again. I have to fight to make sure that it doesn’t happen.
SAD, Maintain your ‘sympathy for the devil’ #SleepinJoeBiden.
My eyes are wide open monitoring Trump, but I‘M NOT falling over all over him.
The worst thing you can do is to attribute to God the deeds of Satan. Just ask your Jewish friend! It’s the one act that really gets his ire…gets YHVH pissed!
It’s ironic with our shitty mutual experiences in the service, especially in Germany while relating to locals, that we reach different conclusions.
For me it was a girlfriend’s father cautioning me of what happened as Germans were hoodwinked. It was already too late for me. In those days they called it “situation reaction“.
In your case… Stockholm Syndrome.
Next time you feel like chasing a rabbit down a whole, check out operations paperclip, highjump, or fishbowl. It’s not too late to change your disgraceful existence into one that is FULL OF GRACE!
You do a remarkable job of transference. You are now on notice. Go back into the Oregon woods from whence you came and never post here again. You are really a lonely and sick man. Any further post get you blocked and should you harass me in any way again I will take appropriate action. Funny. All you know about Germany is from your German girlfriend’s dad and a shitty tour in the Army. That doesn’t make you an expert, it just makes you look pathetic.
Padre Steve, I am sorry you had to go through all of this. Evil does exist, but bigotry has to be carefully using the line from Oscar Hammerstein in “South Pacific.” I take pride in people like African-American Daryl Davis who has convinced over 200 KKK members to quit and give him their robes. He did it by listening to them, then asking questions.
Sadly, evil and bigotry have come out from under the rocks. They feel more empowered. Everyone has some degree of bigotry, but only a few are evil. I don’t know if one can ever fix evil, but we can shine spotlights on bigotry, even though the outgoing president will not.
We need more of our leaders to be our better angels and stop being silent and acquiescing to people in leadership positions who practice bigotry and worse. Keith
Thank you Keith and I do pray that our “better angels” somehow prevail.
Reblogged this on Musings on Life & Experience and commented:
We cannot forget the evils of the past and present.
I had a German/American aunt who refused to believe the holocaust ever took place. My father tried to reason with her but it was like talking to the wall. —- Suzanne
I know people like that. There is no reasoning with them.
I pity those who grew up and live in a community that is all the same – how those people miss out on so much. Here it is so common to hear numerous languages being spoken (over 100 languages spoken once at home by our school children). Multi-lingual and multicultural for a long time – a minority majority big city.
My dad, as a medic, was one of the first US soldiers to enter and liberate Dachau. He often said that it is difficult to understand the cruelty and brutality humans can inflect on each other. While in Germany he often talked to locals of occupied towns ( as he had permission to treat locals as long as supplies were available.) When he asked if they knew about what was happening to Jews and other groups, they said, “yes”. When he asked how they could sit there and let it happen, they said “It wasn’t us they were coming for – and by the time they realized all were at risk, it was too late. They had no way to resist or protect themselves, so they stayed silent and hid as much as possible”
As one who politically stands in the middle – more libertarian than anything else – I wish both extreme ends would stop over-generalizing, name calling, and demonizing the other side – trying so hard to hyper-out do each other. Not helpful – no way to unite if everyone is acting like small children yelling at each other. It’s a tightrope that must be mastered, or as you, and historians know, all will only repeat endlessly.
Thank you once again Steve. It is difficult to read or write about the Holocaust for many reasons. My Dad a WW2 vet said Hitler was “an evil instrument of the Devil”, Being a university smart-ass I constantly argued with him. As I said before having taught the history of Nazism for decades I’m pretty sick of it all, but it needs to be told to new generations. To segue into the Orange One – when he was elected we Kiwis were genuinely worried about our American cousins. It was hurtful to watch the past 4 years. Will you be alright, quite frankly?
Cheers from Roy Murphy
Thank you. I do hope we will be alright but I don’t think that we are out of the woods just yet. If there is another authoritarian and racist resurgence by the Trump Cult and whoever ends of leading I we may have to become expats. Death threats get old.
Well, in that case, you are very welcome here! Arohanui from Roy.
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